Beim Grand Ouvert darf man den Skat nicht aufnehmen und muss die Karten offen hinlegen. Das Spiel muss schwarz gewonnen werden, d.h. man darf keinen. Nein, das seltenste Spiel im Skat ist nicht der Grand Ouvert. Ich persönlich hatte bereits das Glück, vier Grand Ouverts zu haben (einen. Grand Ouverts. Der Grandouvert (Grand offen) ist sehr selten im Skatspiel. Das Blatt muss sofort offen hingelegt werden, und es darf.
Grand OuvertsVorwort. Die Skatordnung ist das international verbindliche Regelwerk für alle Pik ouvert. Kreuz ouvert. Grandspiele. Grand. Grand Hand. Grand ouvert. Der Alleinspieler lässt den Skat unbesehen liegen und tauft sein Spiel "Grand, Schneider angesagt". Obwohl die Gegenspieler nur 15 Augen bekommen. Der Grand Hand Ouvert ist das höchste Spiel beim Skat. Er wird genauso gespielt wie ein Grand Hand Schwarz.
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There is no declarer in Ramsch ; every player plays for himself, and the goal is to achieve as low a score as possible.
The idea behind Ramsch is to punish players who underbid their hands. To make Ramsch more interesting, an additional rule is often played that adds a second winning condition: the Ramsch is also won by a player if that player manages to take all tricks German : Durchmarsch i.
At first, this seems to be not too difficult, since the other players will initially try to take as few tricks as possible and to get rid of their high-ranking cards.
Once they get suspicious, however, they may thwart the effort simply by taking one trick from the player trying for the Durchmarsch.
Suit ranks in Ramsch are the same as in the Grand game, with only the four Jacks being trumps. Hobby players often add the following rule: 10s are lower in trick taking power than Queens and Kings, but still count as ten points.
Sometimes, they only count one point. There are a couple of variants to the rules concerning 10s, so this should be sorted out before starting the game.
Often, the players are allowed to check and exchange cards with the skat, or decline to do so and pass the skat on to the next player, doubling the score known as Schieberamsch.
Jacks are not allowed to be passed on in this variation. The two cards in the Skat are usually added to the tricks of the player who takes the last trick.
After all ten tricks are played, the player with the highest number of card points or alternatively, every player has their card points amount deducted from their score as negative game points.
If one player takes no tricks at all Jungfrau , English: virgin , the points of the losing hand are doubled. Some players also give a fixed value of 15 negative points to the loser and if there are two "virgins", Another variation used in smaller tournaments is the Gewinner-Ramsch winner-rubbish.
If none of the players bid a Ramsch is played. Unlike the original negative game the winner is who achieves the lowest score and is awarded 23 points, the score of a won Null.
Additionally they are awarded the won game. The skat is given to the player with the highest score. If two players achieve the same lowest score they will both be awarded the 23 points and the won game.
While not very widely spread this variation is a nice addition as it rewards the player who most rightfully did not bid. It is possible to play a modified version of the game with only two players.
A popular two-player variant is called Strohmann strawman , in which the dummy hand is played by the player who loses bidding.
After the game has been declared, the third hand is flipped and can be seen by the other players. Thus, it is possible to predict what hand the opponent has and play much more strategically.
It is sometimes used to teach new players the principles of Skat. Another variant is Oma Skat where the dummy hand is known as Oma or "Grandma".
Officers' Skat German : Offiziersskat is a variant for two players. Each player receives 16 cards on the table in front of him in two rows, 8 face down and 8 face up on top of them.
Bidding is replaced by the non-dealer declaring a game type and trump. When a face-up card is played, the hidden card is turned over.
Each deal results in a total of 16 tricks and players must agree whether a game lasts for a certain number of deals or until one player scores a certain number of game points.
Scoring is similar to normal Skat. Skat in the United States and Canada was played for many years as an older version of the game, also known as Tournee Skat , which shares most of its rules with its modern European counterpart with the addition of a few different games and an alternate system of scoring.
Tournee Skat is declining in popularity. Most tournament Skat players in North America play the modern game described above. Upon determining the game, declarer may also state that he or she intends to Schneider or Schwarz for extra game points or penalties.
The game points, however, are a bit different. Base value for the different games are as follows:. As in German skat, game points in North American Skat are tallied by multiplying base game value by:.
Note that if Schneider or Schwarz are declared but not made, then the contract is not met and declarer loses the amount that he or she would have won if successful.
The above multipliers do not figure into games played null or ramsch. In the event of disputes, players may appeal to the International Skat Court in Altenburg.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German three-player card game. This article is about the German card game. For the American game sometimes called Scat, see Thirty-one card game.
Main article: History of Skat. Main article: Officers' Skat. Retrieved 3 Jun Retrieved 23 Feb Retrieved 13 April Foster, Foster's Skat Manual , pp.
Retrieved 25 November Archived from the original on 21 February Hertefeld, The Game of Skat in Theory and Practice , pg.
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The cards discarded may include one or both of the cards picked up, and their value counts along with your tricks. Having discarded, you declare your game.
If you looked at the skat, your contract is a skat game. There are seven possibilities:. Diamonds , Hearts , Spades , Clubs in which the named suit is trumps and the declarer tries to take at least 61 card points ,.
Grand in which the jacks are the only trumps and the declarer tries to take at least 61 card points ,. Null in which there are no trumps and the declarer tries to lose every trick ,.
You may choose not to look at the skat cards, but to play with the 10 cards you were originally dealt. If you don't look at the skat you are playing a hand game , and again there are seven possibilities: Diamonds Hand, Hearts Hand, Spades Hand, Clubs Hand, Grand Hand, Null Hand and Null Ouvert Hand.
In this case no one must look at the skat cards until after the play. If you are declarer in a Suit Hand or Grand Hand game, you can increase the value of the game by announcing Schneider undertaking to win at least 90 card points , or Schwarz undertaking to win all the tricks , or Open Ouvert undertaking to win all the tricks with your cards exposed.
Such announcements must be made before the lead to the first trick. These announcements are not allowed if declarer has looked at the skat.
Also obviously they do not apply in Null games. Play is clockwise. No matter who is the declarer, forehand always leads to the first trick.
Players must follow suit if they can. A player with no card of the suit led may play any card. Note that in Suit and Grand games the jacks belong to the trump suit, not to the suits marked on them.
For example if hearts are trumps, the jack of clubs is the highest heart , and has nothing whatever to do with the club suit.
A trick is won by the highest card of the suit led, unless it contains a trump, in which case the highest trump wins it. The winner of a trick leads to the next.
If you are declarer in a Suit or Grand game you win if the cards in your tricks plus the skat contain at least 61 card points.
The opponents win if their combined tricks contain at least 60 card points. If the declarer's opponents take 30 points or fewer in tricks, they are Schneider.
If they take 31 or more they are said to be out of Scheider. If they take no tricks at all, they are Schwarz.
The same applies to the declarer - as declarer, you are Schneider if you win 30 card points or less including the skat, and Schwarz if you lose every trick.
Note that Schwarz depends on tricks not points - if a side wins just one trick and it has no card points in it, that is sufficient to get them out of Schwarz.
If you are declarer in Null or Null Ouvert , you win the game if you manage to lose every trick. If you take a trick, you have lost and the play of the hand ceases at that point.
If you are declarer in an Open Ouvert contract - i. Play then proceeds normally, and you play from your exposed hand. The opponents are not allowed to discuss tactics.
The value of a Suit or Grand contract is obtained by multiplying together two numbers: the base value and the multiplier. The base value depends on the trump suit as follows:.
Open contracts are extremely rare: you can only play open if you did not look at the skat and you also undertake to win every trick.
By implication, an open contract includes announcements of Schneider and Schwarz,so you count: matadors, game, Hand, Schneider, Schneider announced, Schwarz, Schwarz announced, and Open.
The jack of clubs and any top trumps in unbroken sequence with it are called matadors. If as declarer you have such a sequence in your original hand plus the skat, you are with that number of matadors.
If there is such a sequence in the opponents' combined hands, declarer is against that number of matadors. Note that for the purposes of matadors, cards in the skat count as part of declarer's hand, even though in a Hand game declarer does not know what is in the skat when choosing the game.
The game multiplier is always counted, whether declarer wins or loses. The calculation of the value of a game sounds something like this: "with 2, game 3, Schneider 4, 4 times spades is 44".
The declarer must always be with or against at least one matador the jack of clubs must be somewhere , so the smallest possible multiplier is 2, and the smallest possible game value and the lowest possible bid is These are easy to score.
Each possible Null contract has a fixed value unaffected by multipliers. As with all contracts, an unsuccessful declarer loses twice the value of the game.
The Null values are:. These rather eccentric looking numbers are chosen to fit between the other contract values, each being slightly below a multiple of Before the rule change of 1st Jan , Null Hand cost only 35 when lost and Null Ouvert Hand cost only 59 - see scoring variations.
If declarer wins the game and the value of the game is as least as much as the bid, then the value of the game is added to the declarer's cumulative score.
If the declarer loses the game and the value of the game is as least as much as the bid, then twice the value of the game is subtracted from the declarer's score.
If the value of the declarer's game turns out to be less than the bid then the declarer automatically loses - it does not matter how many card points were taken.
The Altenburgers then adopted the western rule changes, so that despite the division of Germany there was a common rule basis in East and West.
In the early s, the International Skat Players Association ISPA was founded, which interpreted some rules differently than the German Skat Association.
The two competing associations could not reach a consensus. The conflict escalated when the German Skat Association banned its members from double membership in both associations in In the company Novag Industries launched Skat Champion , the world's first electronic Skat computer, on the German market.
The device was strictly programmed according to the rules of the German Skat Association. After German reunification in , the East German clubs joined the German Skat Association again.
The Skat Association tried to resolve the old dispute over playing cards with a compromise using a new French pack with German suits. The conflict between the German Skat Association and ISPA was also resolved amicably in Both players' associations adopted the International Skat Regulations.
In , the office of the German Skat Association in Bielefeld was closed and moved to its historical headquarters in Altenburg in accordance with the resolutions of the 28th Skat Congress.
Between and there were 29 Skat Congresses. The German Skat Association was founded at the third Skat Congress. Important congresses are marked in bold : .
In the first game variants, the dealer always received the two surplus cards and became a soloist.
The trumps comprised the Unters Jacks and the trump suit as in the modern Suit contract. However, the declarer was not free to choose trumps.
The trump suit, as in Wendish Schafkopf and most contracts of modern Doppelkopf , was permanently Bells Diamonds. The soloist's only privilege was that he could discard two less useful cards.
Otherwise, the dealer was forced to play and had no influence on the type of game. Under these rules, the soloist had to play even if he did not have a single trump or Ace in his hand.
Of course, most solo games were lost. In the next stage of development, the pack was cut and the bottom card determined the trump suit.
To determine the trump suit, the lowest card had to be revealed, so that the other players knew at least one card held by the soloist.
Since this solution was not satisfactory either, and idea by Carl Christian Adam Neefe was adopted whereby an auction was held to determine the soloist and trump suit.
By bidding, however, further types of contract other than the basic suit contracts became possible. Early forms of Null and Grand were already being played in the s.
The Null was, from the outset, a plain-trick game and basically resembled its modern successor. The predecessor of Grand was called Ace Game As-Spiel ; it was the counterpart to Null and also had no trumps.
The main difference between Altenburg suit bidding Altenburger Farbenreizen and the point bidding system used today was that the suit bidding offered only the basic values of the games.
Little is known about the early history and origins of point bidding. The first Skat Congress failed in its attempt to found an all-German Skat Association because its participants could not agree on a compromise between suit bidding and point bidding.
This suggests that point bidding was already widespread in This rule explains today's suit values 9, 10, 11 and 12 , because these were the basic values of Suit Solo games.
The next step was to extend point bidding to the other contracts. In , the Deutsche Bundespost issued a special stamp on the occasion of the th anniversary of the first German Skat Congress.
On 5 September , Deutsche Post issued a special cent stamp under the motto of Jahre Skat " years of Skat".
The design was by graphical artist, Christoph Niemann from Berlin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Retrieved Categories : Skat card game Cultural history of Germany.
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Gegenüber einem gewonnenen Grand Hand Schwarz erhöht sich der Spitzenwert um eins. Laut einer Statistik von Skatcorner. Schon zu Beginn der Geschichte des Skatspieles gab es ein As-Spiel, bei dem es, ähnlich wie beim Null, keine Trümpfe gab und die Buben sich einreihten.
Aus dieser Frühvariante entwickelte sich schon vor der Grand. Skatkongress in Altenburg der Grundwert des Grands auf 24 und der des Grand Ouverts auf 36 festgelegt.
Die letzte offizielle Änderung fand mit der Einführung der Internationalen Skatordnung statt, als der Grundwert des Grand Ouvert auf 24 definiert wurde und die Spielstufe offen mit in die Berechnung einging.
So erreicht der höchste Grand ouvert bei Grundwert 24 mit 4 Spiel 5, Hand 6, Schneider 7, Schneider angesagt 8, schwarz 9, schwarz angesagt 10, offen 11 Punkte.
Bei einem Grundwert von 36 30 wurden dann Punkte erreicht, da die Spielstufe offen entfiel. Kategorie : Skat.
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